The Journal of Online Education (JOE)

World Association

for Online Education


For information on membership, organization's activities and listservs, go to WAOE

EDITION 99 is archived at this web site, as well as new articles from the 21st century. This is an on-going edition devoted to all aspects of Education.

Special Edition: Teaching Online during the 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic in the Journal on Terrorism: Invisible Terrorist: COVID 19

Post-Pandemic Pedagogy by Steve McCarty
Osaka Jogakuin University; World Association for Online Education (WAOE) President
Website: – Email:

A Multisensory Approach to Teaching Writing and Literature Peri-Pandemic by Dr. Julia Keefer, recipient of the 2019-2020 Dean's Scholar Innovation Grant




Julia Keefer, Ph.D. New York University




Original Peer Review Board:
James Brasic, M.D., Ph.D.
Kathleen Dann, M.D.
Michael Harkins, Company President and CEO
Nechama Sorscher, Ph.D.
Mark Tomita, M.A. R.N.
Technical Advisors: Joseph Hargitai and Jeff Lane
Web Consultant: Andrew Woodard

WAOE Original Officers and Members:

WAOE President and Professor
Steve McCarty, Japan
WAOE Vice-Presdient Mihkel Pilv, DVM and CEO of Miksike Corporation, Estonia
WAOE Executive Secretary Brian Donohue-Lynch, Ph.D. Connecticut
WAOE Treasurer
Jenna Seehafer,M.A.,California
WAOE Online Academic Conference Committee Chair Nicholas Bowskill, University of Sheffield, England
WAOE Online Educator Development Committee Chair Kinshuk, Germany
WAOE Cyber-Parliamentarian Michael Warner
WAOE Membership Chair and Professor David Wyatt, M.A., Australia
Fiona Crofton, Ph.D. Canada
Katherine Watson, Ph.D., Chair of Research and Publications Committee, California
Marshall Wick, M.B.A., J.D.


Editorial Statement

The goals of JOE, The Journal for Online Education, are to encourage and document creativity in online education, optimal mindbody conditioning in cyberspace culture, and cultural diversity in global communication in a range of discourse from abstract, esoteric articles in academic styles, cutting edge experimental research, news articles, business reports, creative writing and art work to the stories and drawings of children. The journal is not organized by discipline but seeks to develop new paradigms of thought by developing multi-, inter-, cross-, and trans-disciplinary and anti-disciplinary activities in basic adventure and problem areas related to cyberspace. The Journal of Online Education is inclusive but experimental, and therefore seeks the most original, provocative submissions possible. The mission of the Journal of Online Education is to turn us all into intellectual activists, to provide access and quality education to all people around the world, to develop and condition our physiology and kinesiology so that our meat doesn't rot in cyberspace, and to preserve freedom of expression, inquiry, creativity and cultural integrity as technology continues to develop. Although JOE is based in New York, its audience is global. In his keynote address, "Online Education as a New Professional Discipline" at the TCC98 online conference (organized by Jim Shimabukuro), Professor Steve McCarty writes: "The future will thus be a co-creation of Westerners and non-Westerners."

GUIDELINES for the Journal of Online Education

Subject Matter: We accept anything related to teaching or researching online or in cyber-enhanced classes anywhere in the world; or how traditional knowledge and/or conventional cognitive processing are enhanced, destroyed, and transformed by the medium of cyberspace. Poetry, graphics, and other creative writing can touch on any of the themes listed below and need not be didactic nor pedagogical.

Submissions can be Academic or Non-academic

Non-academic submissions include WAOE organization statements and reports, business reports, news articles, POETRY and ORIGINAL ART WORK about cyberspace, BOOK REVIEWS, and the writings and drawings of CHILDREN.

Browse through the description of the various divisions for ideas on content.

Submission Procedure: Submit a brief bio, an abstract of your paper to Professor Keefer, editor-in-chief: This is a non-exclusive, informal, not-for-profit contract, so your paper can be published elsewhere. We can also publish unlinked URLs from personal web pages. If you give us a URL at a commercial or educational site, make sure you have the rights to your paper and can publish it in JOE. Otherwise send attachments by email to Dr. Julia Keefer,

"Cyberspace as an Academic Publishing Medium" by WAOE President Steve McCarty

Combining Cyberspace, Meatspace and Deepspace: How the Internet Changes the Conventional/Traditional Classroom" by Julia Keefer,Ph.D.1999

I:How Do We Think?

THE BRAIN GYM (cross-disciplinary articles to solve the problem of how to make our brains work better)

This section includes academic APA articles on hard-core cognitive science addressing the issues of how the brain processes, remembers, creates and forgets information in cyberspace, as well as hypothetical and experimental articles on the metaphorical comparison to exercise physiology and application of different cognitive domains to the wild west of cyberspace. Creativity needs rules and structures but when and how do we break these rules to enhance our thinking, charting new territory in those cerebral fissures, increasing our synaptic connections? What are the connections between mental and physical conditioning? We encourage the submission of nonlinear experiments, games, poetry, artwork and stories to encourage synchronicity between right and left brain functions.The brain gym paradigm continues with creative ways to make learning fun for children.

Motivation in Filmmaking by Zach Golden
Cognitive Development and Cognitive Domain: Connecting the Paths to Success by Rachel Hanley

II: How does the Internet Change the Way We Think?

Of Myths and Mirth: Providing Online Education by Jack W. Brown, Ph.D., (2008)
Qualitative Research in Organisations: A New Perspective by
PURMESSUR Rajshree Deeptee and BOODHOO Roshan, 2008

Justifications for Qualitative Research in Organisations: A Step Forward by
BOODHOO Roshan PURMESSUR Rajshree Deeptee, 2009

Capital Structure and Ownership Structure: A Review of Literature by

Online Education at Faith-Based Institutions:  What do Students Really Want?
Maude Yacapsin (2013)

Mindfulness Learning and Contemplative Inquiry in Online Environments by Annette M. Holba, Plymouth State University, Associate Professor and Christina M. Noyes, Gorham School District, Director of Music, University of Phoenix, Instructor (2013)

Diversity in the Global World
Gender Gap in the Tech Industry by Kerry Choy (2016)

A Study of the Effects of Students' Socioeconomic Status on the Online Learning Environment by Veronica Anover, Carno Ng, and Michelle F. Ramos Pellicia (2017)


CYBERRHETORIC (trans-disciplinary articles on the language and rhetoric of cyberspace and how it compares to traditional modes)

"Structured Dissonance and the Art of Building Arguments for the World Wide Web" by Sean D. Williams

What are the points of persuasion in this hypertextual/visual/verbal medium of intense speed and fluidity? Electronic argumentation investigates how to persuade with graphics, hypertext and condensed information, Aristotelian versus Boolean Logic, Fuzzy Logic, indeterminacy, chaos, evaluating information, linear intensives, course descriptions.
Children play in cyber-court. How do they use the web to win arguments?

Teaching Public Speaking Online
By Tim Sheldon (2009 )

Managing Threaded Discussions (2009) by
Farhang Mossavar-Rahmani, Ph.D.
Cynthia Larson-Daugherty, Ed.D.


Online Gifted Education Program by Theresa Monaco, Ph.D.(2008)

Online Gifted Education Program: Student Products Using Rubrics (2010) by Theresa Monaco, PhD.


"Palimpsest: Comparing Story-telling, Cave Painting and Manuscripts of the Past to Discussion Forums in Cyberspace"by Paul David Henry




How do we distort time and space in cyberspace? How do interactivity and immersion change the way we experience our stories? This section discusses the problems of nonlinear, interactive narrative including specific ways each surfer can contribute to story. It also includes short selections of hypernarrative or cyberspace poetry as well as "Once upon a time..." by children around the world.


CYBERSCIENCE (theoretical, hypothetical, experimental and descriptive articles, models and course development about how to understand the natural world)



What happens to traditional scientific thinking and methodology in the wild, chaotic jungle of cyberspace? Can one be too specialized? What are the problems of plagiarism, secrecy and exposure? What is the best way to evaluate online research? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the virtual laboratory? How much is technology replacing traditional manual lab skills? Give examples and links to VR sites, web syllabi etc. and discussion/description of how they enhance learning, experimentation etc. Feel free to debate how cyberspace cools and inflames hot issues like cancer research, cloning, biogenetic engineering, medicine and ethics, (euthanasia, abortion, fertility clinics etc.)What kind of games can children play online to help them learn more about the physical world?


Science and Religion by Tash Tahir

CYBERDRAMA (inter-disciplinary articles, analyses and performance documentations of MOOS, MUDS, chat rooms, Hyperdrama and Cyberperformance as well as excerpts from all of the above in script form)

Music Education by Kyung Kang (2012)


  How is conflict expressed, catharsized and resolved in cyberspace? How can we effectively discover, isolate and express conflict in a cyberperformance, the dramatic intersection of meatspace, deepspace and cyberspace? Can traditional Aristotelian dramatic structure work in cyberspace? What happens when people create their own characters? How does suspension of disbelief work in a MOO, MUD or chat room? Are computer shamans as mysterious and powerful as traditional ones? What are the rituals of the online tribal community? What do children think of cyberdrama, what characters do they like to play, and how do they "dress?

The Therapeutic Stage Encounters the Virtual World by Susan Imholz, Ph.D.(2007)

Digital Storytelling by Theresa Monaco, PhD. (2011)

Dr. Monaco's Digital Storytelling

The Value of Liberal Arts Courses in Online Education
Tammy Starzyk, 2008

Problem Solving Unit: Academic and Social Problems by Theresa Monaco, Raymond Ruiz, and Carla Sugar (2011)

III: How is this New Knowledge Possessed, Shared, Stolen or Perceived?

HUMANS AND NATURE AND CYBERSPACE (multidisciplinary articles on how to reach the whole world)

“All Aboard the Online Express…Or Get Left at the Station” by Dr. Darrin Sorrells (2009)

Perceptions of Non-Traditional Doctorates by Matthew A.North, Ed.D. 2008

The Habitat Agenda: Adequate Shelter for All

The Impact of Globalization on Higher Education in Malaysia by Anantha Raj A. Arokiasamy (2010)
What Online College Students Say About Online Instructors and What do Online Faculty Members Say About Online Instruction: A Comparison of Attitudes by Michael T. Eskey, PhD and Marthann Schulte, PhD, 2010
Mudassar Altaf, Lecturer in Chemistry, Government Dyal Singh College, Lahore, Pakistan

Scholarship, Leadership and Practice: The Post-Secondary Educator’s Role in Developing Information Literacy in Students
Alicia Peters (2013)

Chronological Expansion of Higher Education System in South Kashmir after Independence by Dr. G. H. Mir and Maroof Maqbool (2015)

ACCESS: This section includes descriptive and anthropological articles on how online education is delivered to remote corners of the globe as well as to the boroughs of New York and Tokyo, debates on ecology vs. technology, consumerism, preservation, capitalism and "progress." How can we make information comprehensible and accessible while respecting cultural diversity?Homogenity does for global access what some corporate courseware deals do for financial dilemmas. If information is simple, clear, accessible, and "dumbed down," it will be easy to distribute all over the world, to even the most impoverished, illiterate group of people. In some ways this is good. It gives everyone in the global community a baseline of knowledge, a common language. But now we are not only compromising creativity, but also global diversity. Will corporate courseware become an intellectual colonialism or can we learn something from the rich traditions and rituals of indigenous peoples?
How do children visualize computers in their environment? Who are their cyberpals in distant lands?

THE POLITICS OF CYBERSPACE(polemics: argumentative and descriptive articles on who controls the net)
Communication On(the)Line by Thomas Lavazzi

The Nagpur Learning Centre in India by Dr. Catherine Berry Stidsen
Internet Resources on American and Russian Education: Virtual Tools for Academic Research by Piotr Shalimov

The Chronicles - A New Paradigm: An Integration of Online Social Work and International Travel Who Would’ve Thought That An Online Course Could Travel to Jamaica? by Dr. Amy Storch and Dr. Leslie Yaffa (2015)
Standardization in Global Dental Education to Facilitate Global Relocation of Dentists by: Divya Bhandari (2017)
A Study of the Effects of Students' Socioeconomic Status on the Online Learning Environment by Veronica Anover, Carno Ng, and Michelle F. Ramos Pellicia (2017)

What is the relationship between control, ownership and quality? How do educational sites differ from commercial ones? Is Big Brother still behind the wild west of the info highway? Are all people free to express themselves, or is there a cyberelite?Will this information age eventually bring the post-industrial era to a new understanding of goods and services so that wealth becomes something else besides money? How will the political philosophies of Marxism/Maoism and capitalism evolve with the addition of an intellectual world cyberelite that may not possess traditional wealth?


Education in Tanzania by Marie Yahl (2015)

  How can computers enhance not only foreign language acquisition but also nonverbal communication, understanding of timespace, rhetoric and behavior in the foreign culture? How are you using MOOS, Blogs, Wikis, teleconferencing, courseware, e-mail communication to teach foreign languages and intercultural communication?


IV:What is the Best Way to Deliver this Knowledge?

CORPORATE CORNER (multi-disciplinary descriptive articles, business reports, and debates on trends in software and courseware)
The Market Value of Online Degrees as a Credible Credential by Calvin D. Fogle, DBA, Western Governors University, Devonda Elliott, Doctoral Candidate
University of the Rockies (2013)

Business Educators' Perceived Barriers Regarding Online Higher Education Modality by Calvin D. Fogle, DBA Western Governors University Pamela S. Burian, Ed.D Western Governors University Nancy Hughes, MBA Western Governors University (2017)

Virtual Classrooms and Equity Traders: 2014 and Beyond by Brent R. Webber (2014)
The Conflict and Benefit of Organizational Cultures in Cross-Sector Collaborations by Dr. Mike Ward and Dr. Gary Peters (2015)


The Impact of Web-Based Technology on Distance Education in the United States
by James C. Samans
Online Course Design: An MBA Model by D'Arcy A. Becker, 2003
The End of the Web As We Know It by Shannon J. Field, 2003Creating a Hybrid College Course by Gordon Hensley, 2005
Online Tools for Teaching Gifted Students by Theresa Monaco , 2006
Online Learning versus the Traditional College by Carron J, 2006
How to Improve the Parenting Student's Scholastic Achievement by Lena L. Jackson, 2006
Strategy Intervention and Reading Proficiency in the Modern Tertiary EFL Classroom by Stephen English, 2007
Differentiated Units Exemplary Products by Theresa M. Monaco, Ph. D et al, 2008

Teachers use Evaluation Standards to Teach Curriculum by Theresa Monaco, Ph.D. 2010

By: Theresa Monaco, Christie Macey, Mario Prado, and Michelle Martinez
, 2010
Teachers Select Major Contributors to Gifted Education by Theresa Monaco, Lynda Kieler, Emre Altunkopru, 2010
Undergraduate Differentiated Units of Instruction, Research and Recognition, 2011
By: Theresa Monaco, Ph.D., Melissa Pierson, Ph.D., Amber Meuth, Ed.D, and Lloyd Bernandez

Theresa Monaco's Web Site:
Suggestive Strategies for Achieving Teacher Effectiveness by Dr. Vikrant Mishra, Mohit Puri, 2011 Mastery Learning: An Efffective Teaching Strategy by Vahid Mohamedi, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran, 2011
The Hybrid Course as Ritualized Pedagogical Space by Laura Younger, 2011

Gifted Learners Differentiate Curriculum in the Regular Classroom by Theresa M.Monaco, Ph.D, Christen Crayton, Maimuna Abdilah, and Chau Dao (2012)

Complexities of multiple paradigms in higher education leadership today
Dr Victor Yu Sing Ong, KDU University College Malaysia (2012)

An Effective use of ICT for Education and Learning by Drawing on Worldwide Knowledge, Research, and Experience:ICT as a Change Agent for Education (A LITERATURE REVIEW)by Syed Noor-Ul-Amin, 2012
Significant Trends in the Development of Online Education: A Review of the Literature by Gail D. Caruth, Department of Educational Leadership Texas A&M University-Commerce Commerce, Texas USA Donald L. Caruth, Ph.D. Independent Management Consultant (2012)
PREPARING STUDENTS FOR ONLINE EDUCATION: A Case Study of a Readiness Module René Cintrón, Ph.D. Jennifer R. Lang(2012)
Using Graphics to Differentiate Curriculum by Theresa Monaco (2012)
Learning Assignments for Teaching in the Classroom by Theresa M. Monaco (2013) Click here: I, II, III
The Benefits of Critical Path Analysis in Doctoral Research by Dr. Lorraine Cleeton and Dr. Gilbert Cleeton (2013)

Student Preferences for “Live”, Recorded, and Text-Based Lectures in a Stress Management Course by Kristine Fish, PhD and Hyun Gu Kang, PhD (2014)
Switching It Up Online: “Switcher” as a Vehicle for Visual Transactions by Alisha M. Harper and Michael G. Strawser (2016)


Principal leadership for private schools improvement: The Singapore perspective by Victor Yu, 2009
Integration of technology in our classrooms: A divisive issue by Vahid Motamedi, PhD., Tehran, Iran 2010


Students’ Content Preferences for Taking Online Courses By M.O. Thirunarayanan, Ph.D.

Assessment for Online Education

Learning Assessment in a Self -learning Material by Dr. Mohammad Habibur Rahman (2014)                                                                      

Is the marriage between corporations and universities enhancing education, or insuring the docile, disciplined, financially lucrative life-long learning of carefully marketed money-making individuals? What program is good for what? Is the customer always right? Which program is simple, efficient, cheap; which program enhances creativity and independent thinking, which is better to memorize facts, which program fosters too much conformity or template thinking?How do the different approaches satisfy the demands of performative, mentored, collaborative and self-directed learning? How many people experience wonder, humor and surprise with corporate courseware? When and how does greedy commercialization compromise education and when are starving cyber intellectuals too pure for their own survival? What excellent projects are corporations backing? When are corporations more creative than universities? Empirical descriptions and quantitative analyses of increments in learning can be used to validate the efficacy of certain kinds of software. What are children's favorite programs?

Influence of Heavy and Low Television Watching on Study Habits of Secondary School Students—A Study by Syed Noor-Ul-Amin and Dr. Mohammad Iqbal Mattoo (2012)



(Prescriptive articles and question and answer forum on how to help your body survive the deleterious aspects of cyberspace)
This section can include physical therapy, orthopaedic, neurology, rheumatology and fitness articles and graphics on specific problems such as aching backs, eye strain, carpal tunnel syndrome, cardiovascular deconditioning, problems of the physically challenged etc. Prescriptive exercises for back care and posture, virtual aerobics, poetry and children's drawings are also included. How do children intersperse net surfing with exercise and play?

"Aching Backs in the Info Age" by Dr. Keefer
"Contemplative Online Learning Environments" by Laura Sevika Douglass
"The Commercialization of Yoga" by Ashok Ojha
"Martial Expertise in the Modern World" by Marie Isa

Online behavior change counseling training for health care professionals caring for patients with diabetes
Anna M. Rehwinkel, PsyD,1 Lynn Clemow, PhD1 and Connie J. Pascal, MCIS2

Online Learning:The Times They are a Changin (Distraction and ADD in 21st Learning) by Anthony Wesolowski (2015)
Cyber-Bullying in the Online Classroom: Faculty as the Victims Michael T. Eskey, Ph.D. Michael T. Eskey, Jr., DPA (2015)
Fighting Bullying in UAE Classrooms in 2015 by Serafina
The impact of smartphones and mobile devices on human health and life by Leonid Miakotko(2016)

    VI: Deconstructing the Self in Cyberspace

PRIVACY: THE SELF AND OTHERS (inter-disciplinary articles on cyberspace and deepspace, sociology, psychology and ethics)

Mundus Imaginalis: The Body by Mona de Vestel, May 2008 Excerpt from Master's Thesis – Interactive Telecommunications Program. New York University. May 1995. Author: Mona de Vestel – Assistant Professor of Writing & New Media. SUNY Institute of Technology.
In a time when flesh is lethal, what does it mean for us to turn on our computers to touch one another? What does it mean for us to spend our time in a state of disembodiment? Whether it is online or in the dimension of virtual reality, we become bodiless.
Mundus Imaginalis: Time in Cyberspace by Mona de Vestel, 2009
Temporality, the thread of time, is in fact the container for the demarcation of real or
imagined events in our lives. Historically, philosophers have crystallized the definitions of time
within parameters of succession. Western philosophy indulges in the inflated importance given to
the notion of the past and the grandiose role it plays in referencing our modes of temporal

Virtual” Honesty: The Chains of Technology by Courtney Graham, December 2007

Psychology and Cyberspace: Asking Big Questions by Judith S. Miller, PhD, Columbia University, February 2017

How do we present ourselves to others in cyberspace? Do we lose our "souls" in virtual communities or discover parts of our unconscious we were not aware of? Does this WWW global magazine virtualize the archetypes of the Jungian collective unconscious? When does the internet become a destructive addiction? Is privacy still important in the global age and if so, how do we preserve it? Is there such a thing as cyber-fright, like stage-fright or writers block, or does the nature of the medium encourage us to let it "all hang out"? How does the Western concept of self conflict with the non-Western sense of state and community, or even "soul"? Creativity demands a respect for the self, a Western concept in terms of material goals, but an Eastern one when developing spiritual goals. The self is messy, complicated, chaotic and contradictory, as all of you who have studied Jung and Freud, or even remembered your own dreams, know. Where is the place in our online educational model for the "deepspace" of the unconscious? What studies are being done on how the internet affects pathologies such as attention deficit disorder, autism and manic depression?

How can children protect themselves against predators but still express themselves and have fun?

"Elephant Surveillance to Thought" by Andrew Levy, Ph.D.

THE BODY IN CYBERSPACE (cross-disciplinary articles to investigate mindbody duality in cyberspace)

This section includes philosophical and cultural discussions of the representation, deconstruction and duality of the mindbody in cyberspace.



ORGANIC PROFESSORS ON THE INORGANIC NET (trans-disciplinary articles on the role of professor, teacher, mentor, collaborator on the internet)

RealVideo of the Wired Professor Colloquium at NYU, Spring 1999

Is the traditional professor anachronistic? Can group collaboration replace group leaders? What is the best training for tomorrow's educators? How do educators compensate for limits while retaining leadership? How can their biological mindbodies compete with the exhausting demands of cyberspace's seemingly infinite space and time? Will professors still be intellectual factory and migrant workers in the twenty first century, a cog in a wheel, smoothing the production of the courseware package? Will societies always reward and worship models, movie and pop stars more than educators,or will cyberspace improve the social status of professors? What do children think of their teachers?



A. What can we learn from the Past?


Huguenot Education in Colonial America by Caitlin Shuster, 2007

B.What does the Future think of the Present?

College Students' Papers

English Pronunciation Problems as a Hindrance to Effective Communication among Chinese Students by Chengxu Lin (2017)
Educational Inequality: Socioeconomic status best predicts academic success in students by Brandon Choi (2017)
Closing the Achievement Gap by Attacking Summer Learning Loss by Patricia Nicolas-Nader (2017)
Cyber Insecurities by Razia Sultana (2017)
Igen in Trouble:
Using the Internet to Reverse the Decline of Reading Among American Adolescents by Peng Guo (201
Using Art Therapy to help Muslim Refugees Assimilate and Relocate in the US by Neda Nickzad (2018)

"Major Factors Affecting Communication Styles between Japanese and American Children" by Yuko Oyama


"We interrupt in different places" by Ruth Danon, PhD,2000 by Kathleen Huun, PhD, 2010

"One sentence on creativity" by Julia Keefer, PhD, 2013

Minimax by Julia Keefer 2015



The Last Lecture by Randy Pausch, reviewed by Mary Elizabeth 'M.E.' Yeager, 2009

Book Review of McLeod, Julie & Yates, Lyn. (2006). Making Modern Lives: Subjectivity, Schooling, and Social Change. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, (Softcover), 275 pp. by Dr. Vahid Motamedi, 2010 

CYBERSPACE : The Human Dimension by David B. Whittle, reviewed by David Silver

Book Review of Percy, S. L., Zimpher, N. L., & Brukardt, M. J. (Eds.). (2006). Creating a New Kind of University: Institutionalizing Community-University Engagement. San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass:Author:  Yan Huang, PhD. (2015)


Recent research in functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals that humor stimulates intense cerebral activity, connecting the language center with the somatosensory area, the right with the left brain. How is humor used in the classroom to stimulate thinking and creativity? Do we have any perspective on our digitalized global culture? What is funny about our adventures in cyberspace? What mistakes have great scientists, technologists, thinkers, artists, writers, politicians made in the past and how are we correcting them? What mistakes are we making?



Submit to: Professor Keefer.